Updated 26 July 2016
What is “mindfulness”? How is it more than just “paying attention” to something? How do psychologists, psychotherapists, and psychoanalysts use it? How can we, as the general population not specializing in psychology use it?
Some of these answers will be found here. However, this concept will go further than has ever been done before. In order to do so, the reader is warned that any really effective method for treatment takes a lot of training, but that doesn’t mean book training, necessarily.
This post is a description of what “mindfulness” means to the psychotherapist, how it can be used to monitor and change physiological functioning, how one can train the nervous system to use this technique to its fullest. How it fits into the pantheon of mind-body medicine techniques is described, with examples of how it can be used. Other discussions include how the brain works when the person practices mindfulness and what the patient/practitioner is capable of doing by using this technique. This article is a mix of straight reporting and personal observation, with examples of how the author used mindfulness with other mind-body techniques.
Description & Definitions
Mindfulness is being aware of things about the self more deeply than most people normally do. It means being aware of physiological and mental activity at the moment they change from one second to the next. A person practicing this technique becomes aware of every image, word, thought that comes to mind. It is the ability to focus on the tiniest detail of sensory input (sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, pain, temperature, pressure, proprioception), regardless of from where that input originates.
More helpful than just mindfulness is being able to discern the meaning of the image, thought or word that suddenly “appeared,” its significance to one’s own mental and physical state, and the ability to change that state when needed, using those images, thoughts, or words to guide the practitioner.
Thus, mindfulness is just one member of an array of tools needed to make those changes, which include Visualization Techniques (Guided Imagery) and Muscle Reflex Testing (see MRT 1.0-a: How it Works and MRT 1.0: Using MRT Muscle Reflex Testing).
The standard method of mindfulness techniques, as used by psychologists, involves thinking about what one is thinking about (see NICABM for more information on this topic and teleseminars for which the reader can sign up to listen to (free or by subscription). Mindfulness means more than just thinking, however, as the image on the right suggests.
• It means focusing on all thoughts and images that pop into the mind, even if they are only fleeting.
• It means summarizing to oneself what they mean, finding the links among all of them that point to something that might explain one’s emotion, fleeting though even that was.
Mindfulness as a concept existed long before the techniques using it were developed. Some of the earliest references to it in the psychological research come from the 1970s when Buddhist thinking was becoming popular in the west (Lesh, 1970). The term “mindfulness” comes from much of that thinking. Since then, the practice of mindfulness meditation, originating with Buddhist philosophy, has entered the lexicon of modern psychotherapy (Goleman, 1971). In this technique, the patient learns how to meditate first by focusing on the breath, breathing, and attempting to keep stray thoughts away.
However, no Buddhist meditator ignores stray thoughts in the end, because they are a window into what is bothering the mind. The focus on the breath becomes a method for practicing this focus, and that means even on the slightest detail.
Focus on the body helps to integrate the physiological and emotional aspects of one’s life. Buddhists did not see them as separate in any way. Nor should anyone who wants to learn how to heal, either physically or emotionally. Deatherage (1975) was among the first to promote its use in the medical context. Ludwig and Kabat-Zinn (2008) have done a lot of research using this method, promoting it for a new field of MBSR (Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction), and the reduction of chronic pain.
Since then mindfulness has been used in other techniques such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Many businesses are using it to increase productivity among their employees. Hanson (2009) offers many methods for healing by using mindfulness, relating these uses to neuroscientific findings.
Many psychotherapists encourage their patients to practice mindfulness by keeping a journal and writing down every thought that enters their minds. However the primary method for teaching mindfulness is usually done by teaching “mindfulness meditation,” where the person concentrates on every sensation they have and focusing on where it is and what it means at that moment, generally in an environmental setting of quiet, low light, and no distractions.
Suppose a person is trying to quit smoking. In may psychotherapy practices the person is advised to keep a journal of the feelings experienced just before a craving is noticed. The person writes down all thoughts experienced in the moments before the craving’s onset. Pretty soon a pattern in those thoughts can be discerned. Suppose a person always gets this image of something familiar, but it is unknown where it was last seen or when it was first seen. Muscle Reflex Testing (MRT) can be used to ask the brain these questions, always suggesting answers that will elicit a “yes” or “no,” and always starting with a “when” question. Using MRT, patterns to a feeling can be seen much more quickly than with other techniques, such as journal-writing.
Conscious vs Unconscious Roles in Decision-Making
Freud recognized that much of what the brain does is determined by unconscious processes (Westen, 1999). The brain often gets several choices that enter consciousness before a decision to do something is made. Sometimes, at least one of them seems ridiculous–these are the signals that the unconscious brain sends to our conscious decision-making center which have proven to be correct in the past, even when they seem to be wrong today. Thus, some people have come to trust their “guts,” and others think that the only possibly correct decisions are those presented consciously and which are thoroughly analyzed, having carefully excluded those quick, “gut” responses. With practice of mind-body techniques, one will find out that the correct decision depends upon both types of input. The ability to judge which response is best increases with practice. Many people do this without even recognizing that they have learned how to read their “gut” responses. Mindfulness techniques help one become more aware of what the unconscious brain is thinking.
Mindfulness of Unconscious Processes
The purpose of mindfulness is to recognize physiological responses that are related to one’s emotional state. The obvious ways to do this are when a person is lying down quietly after strenuous activity, and listening to/feeling the heartbeat slowing down, or as described above, during mindfulness meditation. Other ways involve listening to and feeling the breath during inhalation and exhalation. People are taught to do this during mindfulness meditation.
Mindfulness can be used to notice all physiological processes, although some are easier to notice than others.
Noticing when a panic attack begins is more subtle than just focusing on the breath, but starts out with obvious signs. As each sign is noticed, a person develops the ability to notice the precursor signs, and as well as detecting them sooner than ever before
During the course of learning to use MRT (Muscle Reflex Testing, see MRT 1.0: Using MRT) a person might actually discover it was better than keeping a journal. A person should immediately ask the unconscious brain what just happened, offering guesses, all of which are aimed at physiological processes. One example is found when using mindfulness to determine if a toxin was coming out of its storage place. A person focuses on symptoms of the toxin (itch, burn, sneeze, lung problems, bone ache, back pain, gut pain, etc.–see Toxins). By focusing on the symptoms and asking questions with MRT, a person soon learns to recognize common symptoms.
For instance, sometimes panic attacks will be linked to movement of a toxin, or repair of the tissue that was holding the toxin, because of the circumstances under which a person is exposed to the toxin. Sometimes the panic attack would be triggered by a very quick flash of an image or thoughts about a person, place or thing associated with that toxin. It is always a good idea to ask what triggered the panic attack. The answer is not always obvious, nor present in the conscious mind.
The unconscious brain generally doesn’t even think of things in the same way the conscious brain thinks. It only finds close associations. Thus, a person has to train it to check out various parts of the brain, naming centers or places (more on this to come in another posting under Nervous System). At first a typical response is a “no,” but if a person just waits (even though the conscious brain seems to “know” that the answer should have been a “yes”), very often the unconscious brain would eventually signal a “yes.” This is a clear sign that the conscious and unconscious brain “think” in different ways. They each have immediate access to different kinds of information.
Furthermore, the decision-making center in the prefrontal cortex never reaches a decision without input from all over the brain. However, as most people realize, training it to make the best decision can take a lifetime, simply because the more experience one has, the more choices it has. It only stands to reason that the more training it has in taking the unconscious brain seriously, the more likely it will make different decisions, and possibly much better, under certain circumstances.
Mindfulness and Levels of Consciousness
It has been noted by others that humans have different levels of consciousness. Western thought about this concept focused on physically observable aspects used by medical doctors to define particular responses they must make when a patient is in one of these levels. It is based on the ability to arouse a patient to a fully conscious state. Eastern thought focused on the integration of the physical with the emotional (Indian chakras and prana, Chinese acupuncture meridians and qi). The Inca and Mayan cultures also incorporated concepts of levels of consciousness into their everyday life. Much of the discussion of levels of consciousness today use both Eastern and Western philosophical thought. This article will focus on
- Conscious vs unconscious thought
There is a modern-day use of this term, “levels of consciousness,” among cultures who have adopted Western economic behaviors. When a person wants to get something done, the task at hand is brought into focus (moved into the highest level of consciousness) and all others get moved into a lower level of consciousness. During multitasking, different things are brought into focus on a rotation basis, spending as little time as possible focusing on only one thing before skipping over to another thing. This works only for a short time, and as Pea et al. (2012), have discovered, the multitasker never fully focuses on any one thing. The result shows up as poor performance on comprehension tests, when compared to people who are not multi-tasking (Pea et al., 2012). Ira Flatow, on NPR’s Talk of the Nation, interviewed Clifford Nass about this study. Nass says, “people who chronically multitask show an enormous range of deficits. They’re basically terrible at all sorts of cognitive tasks, including multitasking.”
Although some may disagree, humans may be only completely unconscious when in a coma. Machado (1999) argues that there is no “simple one-to-one relationship” between consciousness and “higher or lower brain structures” because he thinks that consciousness depends upon both anatomy and physiology of the whole brain. The integration between brain stem and cortical/subcortical structures helps determine consciousness. Despite the fact that Machado was mainly concerned with one phase of “being,” death, and the complete loss of consciousness, he still discusses all the stages leading from consciousness to death. It is argued here that all stages in between a fully awake state and death are part of this continuum of consciousness. Thus, states of coma, “passing out,” sleep, just awakening, all are steps between full consciousness and death.
When people sleep, they go through three main physiological phases (researchers have identified seven stages based upon EEG readings). In the first two physiological states, variable in length, a person is only slightly conscious. This author suggests that different Non-REM (NREM) stages may reflect the changes in electrical patterns of the brain as it analyzes physiological states of different areas of the body. When a sleeper enters REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, he/she becomes a bit more conscious.
Many think that all sleep, even dream sleep, is completely unconscious, but clearly Machado (1999) would not agree, nor would most sleep researchers, today. However, the purpose of dream sleep is not fully understood. Many want to give almost supernatural powers to dreams, holding them out as a method of foretelling the future. Readers of this post do not have to resort to non-biological interpretations to understand biological phenomena.
Instead, it is suggested here that the main purpose of the brain is to keep the rest of the body safe, with all that implies.
The brain may want the sleeper to be slightly more conscious during REM sleep, so that the dreams experienced during this last stage will generate thought patterns which allow the brain to test systems it had just repaired during the non-REM stages. Repair is critical during sleep because the brain can suppress motor output (obviously sleepwalking occurs when something fails in that department). The brain can then test circuits that involve motor output without the danger of a sleeper doing something when in a vulnerable, less conscious state. The brain also uses dream sleep to search for areas related to the repaired ones which may also need repair. Thus, during a dream, as different parts of the brain are shut down, repaired and tested, the dreamer can feel emotion, feel as if floating in the air, or desperately want to run but are “frozen,” just to name a few examples.
Just as a person can become “mindful” of the physiological status of any of the organs inside the body as explained above, one can become mindful of one’s thought patterns.
The person may think that he/she has full control over thoughts, but nothing is further from the truth. Conscious thought about something occurs only when the unconscious brain tells the conscious brain to do so. “Forgetting” to do something, happens because the unconscious brain blocked the conscious brain from doing it. Why? It may block conscious thought about doing that activity because using that part of the brain would interfere with what the unconscious brain had to do. So what has priority? The brainstem, not the neocortex.
Internal vs External Motivation
An example may help to explain how the conscious and unconscious brain are linked. Suppose a parent has to get the kids’ lunches made before they leave for school this morning, yet still has to make breakfast and iron a suit for work. The brain holds this list of items in temporary storage in the hippocampus. But that is not the only place it stores this information. Every cell involved in this list in the hippocampus has connections to cells in the brain stem where there probably exists other “memory” cells, which have been assigned responsibility for these activities (see the section Emotions, Toxins and Their Links in the Brain in Using MRT: Removing Toxins and Emotional Trauma for more on this topic). Theoretically, and based upon the experiences of inserting electrodes into the neocortex of a vertebrate brain, one might suggest that associated with each “memory” cell, there are “timing” cells in the reticular formation. These cells fire off at regular intervals, which cause the brainstem’s “memory” to alert the hippocampal cells that it is holding this information (more on this idea below).
Back to the example. The parent wants to complete this list for reasons “external” to the person, e.g. the consequences of not completing the list are: it costs money to pay for their cafeteria lunches; the parent has to wear a wrinkled suit to work; the kids do not get a complete breakfast. None of these reasons really matters to the parent’s brain. However, the satisfaction of completing each task does matter, but only at the conscious level. The unconscious brain cares more about satisfaction for “internal” reasons–reasons that allow the body to work efficiently for its survival.
Mindfulness and Timing
One of the components of mindfulness, as part of levels of consciousness, is “timing.” Very often, when one wants to remember to do something, one can’t do it immediately, while a person is paying attention to that thought. What happens to that thought? Many people think that what is going on is a series of steps involving “forgetting,” and then “remembering.” These two words need better definition than is now understood by their use. “Forgetting” implies that thoughts vanish from our brains forever. Then how can a person remember to do something in the future that is now gone from the storage depots, having “forgotten” it just before? Keep in mind that if, as is mentioned by many neuroscientists, everything a person has ever experienced is stored in the brain, then no one truly can “forget” anything, but only remove it from conscious memory.
Many people also tend to think that remembering only involves the conscious brain, when the unconscious brain must be using some of that “forgotten” information to prepare our bodies physiologically, when a person has to do something similar to that “forgotten” event. For this reason, at least parts of a memory must be stored in both conscious and unconscious areas of the brain. A person should not have to consciously remember an event, think about its association with other similar events before our brain stem can cause a correct direct physiological response.
Unconscious storage of relevant parts of a memory makes the brain-body interaction much more efficient, especially for repeated actions. In fact, one can argue, that was the reason for creating memory in the nervous system when it evolved.
One of the most studied systems of the unconscious brain is the Reticular Formation. It is composed of an “ascending,” or sensory part, and a “descending,” or motor/effector part. Some of the motor part operates only within the brain so that the word “motor” does not seem to fit some of its functions (e.g. modulation of pain). First identified as a “structure” in the brain stem, researchers have since realized that it extends from the medulla through the mesencephalon, hypothalamus, and on up to parts of the thalamus. Because of this anatomical distribution, it is difficult to draw a line between conscious and unconscious parts of the brain
Early on, however, researchers defined the ascending part as the Reticular Activating System, describing its role in initiating and promoting awakening from sleep. From its functioning in the synchronization of neuronal activity within neocortex and between neocortex and brain stem (Munk et al., 1996, Evans, 2003), activity in the transition between sleep and wakefulness, its role in the timing of saccades, or searching movements in the eyes, (Kobayashi et al., 2002, Graf and Ugolini, 2006), and its importance in reaction time tasks in children born prematurely (Hall et al., 2008), it can be surmised that the reticular formation in the medulla and mesencephalon may play a general function in the timing of events.
It can also be suspected that some of the cells in the Reticular Formation function as alarm clocks, signaling other cells to do something that has been paused for other reasons.
This function would be very important in reaction time tasks and synchronizing conscious and unconscious thought patterns. These cells would fire periodically, sending signals to relevant centers to bring the tasks to which they are assigned to conscious attention (moving the action to the hippocampus). They could fire at a greater frequency while one is actively thinking about the task, e.g. while doing it, and at a lesser frequency when turning the mind to other tasks.
As a real-life interpretation of what these cells do as part of their timing function, the following scenario may be possible. If one forgets to do something, it is not necessarily, as many have hypothesized, because the mind is “distracted” (whatever that means physiologically). Instead, the brain probably has much more control over its thoughts than “distraction” implies. More than likely, “forgetting to do something” happens because the unconscious brain has blocked the timing cells from alerting the memory cells, or the hippocampal cells. Theoretically, this block may be only temporary, probably resulting from needing those memory cells or circuits associated with them for other activities necessary for survival. When that “internal” task is completed, it starts up the notification process again. Obviously, the brain wants to set priorities.
In order for the brain to do this, that priority for every brain task might be set up by a ranking system that is stored in the temporal lobe (in the “math” center), with input from the emotion center in the frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex) and the hypothalamus. In this way, both conscious and unconscious processes have an equal say in which task (conscious or unconscious) gets done first. When the brain calls on very strong emotions to set priorities, then conscious tasks might have the highest priority. Thus, as Antonio Damasio has written in “Descartes’ Error” (1994), a person needs the emotions to make any judgment or decision at all.
Using Mindfulness to Monitor Conscious and Unconscious Thoughts
Mindfulness techniques can be used to monitor all levels of consciousness, and to link both conscious and unconscious aspects of the body. For example, these techniques can be used to remove toxins and emotional traumas that were linked to the toxins. One of the sensations associated with toxins may be periodic gut pain. Questioning the brain stem by using Muscle Response/Reflex Testing, about this pain might find that it was related to toxins coming out of hand bones. Awareness of thoughts during this time might reveal a rapid jumping from very brief images of a place, a person, then an object, then a feeling, all in rapid succession. The images might come so rapidly, that a person was only barely conscious that they had popped into mind. With formal training of the brain, a person does not have to ask about them. The brain follows a (previously taught) program of checking different storage places for links to all emotional traumas linked with the toxin being identified at that time.
This is a personal example. One day I suddenly felt a sensation of fullness, almost to the point of pain in my stomach. I had eaten only very lightly a few hours ago, and this fullness was clearly not related to what I ate. Instead I learned it was related to the babyhood trauma being investigated by the unconscious brain, identified earlier. However, I was probably prompted to ask about it by my unconscious brain. I discovered it was a feeling of being “stuffed” that my brain was remembering from babyhood. The word “asleep” came to mind. Then the word “bottle.”
I asked “Is this from babyhood?”
“Had I just drank so much from my bottle that I was stuffed?”
I thought that was peculiar, since most babies do not over-fill their stomachs. Then suddenly an image of a brown dress with brown buttons on it on the chest of a woman and the pressure of a bottle against my chest came to mind. The image of the dress was very detailed, and I saw a fabric probably dating from the 1940’s since we cannot get it today. It was a dress made of a light-weight wool fiber, tightly woven in a houndstooth check of black, brown and tan colors–a check so small it was probably only one fiber thick.
I asked if the person was my mother.
I saw that my mother’s body was tilted, as if she had fallen asleep on the couch leaning against the cushions on her left side. Only her chest and the bottle on my stomach were in view.
I asked if she was asleep.
I thought that was really odd, since feeding by the baby so depends upon feedback between mother and child, even if it is by bottle. The baby usually has to know that the mother is paying attention to her/him or will stop feeding. But for some reason I had kept drinking until I was too full to drink anymore. The word “fear” came to mind. It then dawned on me the significance of this image, and I started to cry.
This scene allowed me to realize the huge effect fear of my mother had on my behavior, even at two weeks of age. As an adult looking back on this scene, I realized that when I was a baby, I normally stopped drinking milk early at each feeding because I was so afraid of her. A baby is not able to make this conclusion, nor analyze it as I have done here. Thus, the memory of this event was not significant to me at all before I had done the work of recalling all these traumatic events (see the section on Baby Memory in Special Case of Type I PTSD–Rejected Children). The unconscious brain recognized the opportunity only as a safe situation, and no more. The conscious brain, needing to rely more on learning, would not be able to understand enough about the predicament to make special note of it for recall.
Traditional ideas about mindfulness in this article should be put into the perspective of what was going on in the brain.
Mindfulness to levels of consciousness, including sleep and dreaming, forgetting, remembering, timing of signals in the brain, and other basic physiological functions of the unconscious and conscious mind are very likely to be related to each other.
Mindfulness techniques have been shown to teach a person to feel more deeply than normally, to focus on that feeling.
Muscle response testing helps to direct the brain in that focus by teaching it how to find the associations.
Useful for all mindfulness techniques is visualization (Guided Imagery) because it is critical to the success of these methods. However, people are not usually even aware of most of the images that come to mind while thinking. By incorporating Visualization techniques into mindfulness training, the image becomes an icon or avatar, used by the brain to reference other circuits it used to repair traumatic injury. These images can be generated by the brain or by remembered by it from what was seen in a book depicting some anatomical part or physiological process.
The pattern of signals that is created in the brain to find old or learn new information becomes a template for repair by the unconscious brain.
Practice using these techniques leads to efficiency in the brain. For example, after using this system, over a period of months, to teach the brain how to recognize panic attacks, and remove the signals causing them, the brain started to do the same with every panic attack, every sensation that one focused on, by itself, without needing to go through the set of questions about which center in the brain was triggered just before the onset of the problem. A person could just sit and start to feel better automatically, sometimes within seconds of becoming consciously aware that an attack was starting, sometimes after a few minutes.
For other places where I talk about how the brain thinks and offer examples from my life and others, see the following posts:
Atkinson, R., & Shiffrin, R. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. Spence & J. Spence (Eds.). The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 2). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam Sons.
Deatherage, G. (1975). The clinical use of “mindfulness” meditation techniques in short-term psychotherapy. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 7(2), 133-143.
Evans, B. M. (2003). Sleep, consciousness and the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of the brain. Is there a cortical integrating mechanism? Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology 33(1), 1–10. doi: 10.1016/S0987-7053(03)00002-9
Goleman, D. (1971). Meditation as a meta-therapy: Hypotheses toward a proposed fifth state of consciousness. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 3(1), 1-26.
Graf, W. M., & Ugolini, G. (2006). The central mesencephalic reticular formation: Its role in space–time coordinated saccadic eye movements. Journal of Physiology 570(3), 433-434. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2005.103184 [freely available].
Hall, R. W., Huitt, T. W., Thapa, R., Williams, D. K., Anand, K. J. S., & Garcia-Rill, E. (2008). Long-term deficits of preterm birth: Evidence for arousal and attentional disturbances. Clinical Neurophysiology 119(6), 1281–1291. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2007.12.021. [pre-publication freely available].
Hanson, R., & Mendius, R. (2009). Buddha’s brain: The practical neuroscience of happiness, love & wisdom. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
Available at Amazon, paper and e-book.
Kobayashi, Y., Inoue, Y., Yamamoto, M., Isa, T., Aizawa, H. (2002). Contribution of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus neurons to performance of visually guided saccade tasks in monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 88(2), 715-731. [freely available].
Lesh, T. V. (1970). Zen and psychotherapy: A partially annotated bibliography. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 10(1), 75-83. doi: 10.1177/002216787001000106.
Machado, C. (1999). Consciousness as a definition of death: Its appeal and complexity. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience 30(4), 156-164. doi: 10.1177/155005949903000408
Munk, M. H. J., Roelfsema, P. R., König, P., Engel, A. K., & Singer, W. (1996). Role of reticular activation in the modulation of intracortical synchronization. Science 272(5259), 271-274. doi: 10.1126/science.272.5259.271
Pea, R., Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., Nass, M. . . ., Zhou, M. (2012). Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 327-336. doi: 10.1037/a0027030
Westen, D. (1999). The scientific status of unconscious processes: Is Freud really dead? Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 47(4), 1061-1106. doi: 10.1177/000306519904700404
List of Figures
Focus on words, from Wikimedia
Visualization in a daydream, from Wikimedia, PD-US
Youtube interview with Jon Kabat-Zinn
Freud’s Iceberg Model of the Unconscious Brain’s Contribution, from Wikimedia
Portion of Video of Chicken Development Showing Heartbeat closeup & in chicken embryo, from Wikimedia
Little Miss Muffet Showing Panic, from Wikimedia, PD-US
The Seven Main Chakras, as used in Reiki today, from Wikimedia
One concept of multitasking, from Wikimedia
7 Stages of Sleep, as seen in EEGs, from Wikimedia
Sleep, from Wikimedia
Female Body Form, Internal vs External Motivation, altered from Wikimedia image, Renan Siqueira Azevedo
Representation of Consciousness by Robert Fludd 1619, from Nrets at Wikimedia, PD-US.
The Reticular Formation, modified from BrainWiki
Alarm Clock, from Wikimedia
Baby being bottle-fed at a working mothers’ Nursery, Birmingham, UK, 1942, from Wikimedia, PD-old
Houndstooth Check Jacket, from Wikimedia, Dave Gates
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of Memory Types, 1968, from Wikimedia
Thinking (from Helleu’s “Rêverie”), from Wikimedia, PD-US
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